Copper Ores 2

(c) Vin Callcut 2002-2017. Small extracts can be used with acknowledgements to '' website.

Helpful comments are very welcome.




Cumengite (also spelled cumengeite)    (Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide,  Pb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40).



Cuprite and Malachite from Leicestershire  60g, 2oz.  (Copper Oxide, CuO2 )



Cuprite crystals from the Irish Mag Mine, Bisbee, Arizona.  Several modified cubes of Cuprite are disseminated over the top of this 1.9"x1.0"x0.6" specimen.  It was collected in 1907 and is from the R.N.Marble collection.  (Copper Oxide, CuO2 ).


Cuprite from County Bridge Quarry SW 722 219 Lizard Peninsula. Cornwall. (Copper Oxide, CuO2 ). 


Cuprite from Wheal Gorland (OS Ref:  SW 730 427) St Day, Gwennap. Cornwall. Cuprite, Copper Oxide, Cu2O, gives the greatest yield of copper per molecule since there is only one oxygen atom to every two copper atoms. (Copper Oxide, CuO2 ) .


Cuprite from Phoenix United Mine, Liskeard, Cornwall, showing red with some green Malachite and Chrysocolla in a granitic matrix. Size 50 x 50 x 50mm.


Large nugget of Cuprite and turquoise found in the Hassayampa River near Amazon Gorge, Arizona.  It is water worn, feels very heavy and might be ideal for conversion to semi-precious stones.    Size 125 x 60 x 50mm, weight 18.65oz, equivalent to 2,797 carats. (Copper Oxide, CuO2 ).  


Cuproadamite   This piece comes from Agios Constantinos, Laurion, Greece - one of the oldest mines on the planet. Size is 22 by 13 by 27 mm. The backside is covered with crystals as well.  Cuproadamite, is frequently regarded as a variety of the closely related mineral, Adamite. It is the presence of Copper in the crystal lattice which differentiates it apart and gives rise to the emerald green colour. Cuproadamite does not fluoresce at all, whilst Adamite is one of the strongest fluorescing minerals around. (Copper Zinc Arsenate Hydroxide (Cu,Zn)2(AsO4)(OH))



Cuproadamite from Laurion, Greece Cuproadamite is unusual - this piece comes from Agios Constantinos, Laurion, Greece - one of the oldest mines on the planet. Size is 22 by 13 by 27 mm. The backside is covered with crystals as well. (Copper Zinc Arsenate Hydroxide (Cu,Zn)2(AsO4)(OH) )



Electric green- Cuprosklodowskite from Congo.  From the Musonoi Mine in the Shaba province of the Congo. It measures    1 1/2 x 1 1/4 x 1 inches. It consists of a breccia matrix with cupro on a couple of surfaces. The cupro is in lustrous chatoyant needle-like crystals.   Cuprosklodowskite  mainly found only at Shaba, Zaire,  (Hydrated Copper Uranyl Silicate Cu(UO2)2Si2O7.6H2O ).


Cylindrite: Extremely Rare Round Crystals  Lustrous cylinders to about 2 cm. long. in matrix of other rare tin sulfosalts (incaite, franckeite, etc.). Crystals are absolutely unique - like pencil leads; long and round in cross-section. From Poopo, Oruro Dept., Bolivia. Miniature specimen about 1.6 inch across. (Iron Lead Tin Antimony Sulphide  FePb3Sn4Sb2S14 )   


Cyanotrichite ., from Arizona, a wonderfully coloured mineral. Its bright azure to sky blue colour is very impressive. Cyanotrichite typically forms acicular or hair like crystals aggregated into radial clusters, tufts and sprays. The colour is very impressive for such tiny crystals. It is an aptly named mineral since cyano and trich are derived from the Greek for blue and hair, respectively. It is formed from the oxidation of copper ore minerals along with other oxidation zone minerals.  Notable Occurrences include Laurium in Greece; Leadhills in Scotland; Russia; South Africa; Arizona, Nevada and Utah, USA and France . (Hydrated Copper Aluminium Sulphate Hydroxide. Cu4Al2SO4(OH)12.2H2O)


Digenite (Copper Sulphide  Cu9S5 ))



Dioptase - Tsumeb Mine, Tsumeb, Namibia. A half inch long perfectly formed dioptase crystal tops this aesthetic specimen. There are some smaller ones present that really set it off.  Size approx 16 x 14 x 7mm. (Hydrated copper silicate CuSiO2(OH)2 )


Dioptase and Colbaltian Dolomite from Tsumeb Mine, Namibia.  (Hydrated copper silicate CuSiO2(OH)2 ) 


Dioptase, a copper silicate ore, (CuSiO2(OH)2) on a white matrix from the type locality of Altyn Tyube, Kazakstan. Size 29 x 22mm. (Hydrated copper silicate CuSiO2(OH)2 ) . 


Dolomite and Siderite (Iron Carbonate) from Botallack Mine, Cornwall. (Calcium Magnesium Carbonate, CaMg(CO3)2). 


Dometkite (Copper Arsenide, Cu3As) from Mohawk Mine, Mohawk, Michigan with very rich metallic massive, minor intergrown calcite. Calcite has green stains & the Domeykite has a thin layer of red Cuprite. Size 59 x 43 x 25mm.  (Copper Arsenide, Cu3As).



Duftite, Penberthy Croft, St. Hilary, Cornwall. The colour of duftite gives it its great note of distinction. The colour is usually an attractive green of one shade or another. It seems that the colour is often difficult to label and is given a variety of pleasant names. It has been described as pea-green, apple-green, grey-green, olive-green, lime green and dark green, it usually is quite attractive and a joy to possess in one's collection. (Lead Calcium Copper Zinc Arsenate Hydroxide (Pb,Ca)(Cu, Zn)AsO4(OH)),  


Enargite from Longfellow mine, Ouray County, Colorado, shiny black crystals of a copper-arsenic-sulphide ore .  (Copper Arsenic Sulphide Cu3AsS4 ) . 



Erythrite as small but sharp purple crystals generously covering a black cobaltite matrix from Bou Azzer, Morocco.  Erythrite is a cobalt-arsenic ore  (Co 3 [AsO 4 ] 2 ·8H 2O) sometimes found in association with copper ores.  Size 54 x 35mm.  (Hydrated Cobalt Arsenate Co3(AsO4)2.8(H2O) ). 


Freibergite from Gilman, Colorado A sharp specimen of freibergite with pyrite from the Eagle mine, Gilman, Eagle County, Colorado. The specimen measures approximately 69 x 48 mm. The Eagle mine at Gilman, Colorado was a consolidation of many smaller operations, and was operated by New Jersey Zinc Company from 1912 until 1984. This mine was probably the most prolific producer of mineral specimens in Colorado history. Many different species have been collected from this mine over the years, but the mine is most well known for fine specimens of pyrite, sphalerite, dolomite, siderite, barite, chalcopyrite, rhodochrosite, and pyrite after pyrrhotite pseudomorphs. In total the mine 13 million tons of ore averaging 8.5% zinc, 1.5% lead, 0.7% copper, 6.6 ounces per ton silver, and 0.05 ounces per ton gold.  (Complex sulphide pyrite, (Ag,Cu,Fe)12(Sb,As)4S13.)


Fornacite from Shattuck Mine, Bisbee, Arizona with sparse minute micro greenish-brown crystals on more abundant blue-green Ajoite fibres exposed in veins 1-2 mm wide in rock. "Richest" on end opposite the sawed end. Matrix consists of Chrysocolla, Quartz  & "limonite". Ajoite is most abundant in the area on top of photo. 60 x 40 x 20mm. (also furnacite, a lead copper chromate arsenate hydroxide, Pb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)) 


Galena Crystals on Matrix.  This features numerous octahedrons of terminated grey and silver coloured galena crystals on a matrix of drusy marcasite coated dolomite. There are crystals on both the top and the bottom sides. The top features octahedrons to 13mm and the bottom features crystals to 9mm. The matrix features tiny white dolomite crystals, and drusy golden marcasites. It was collected from the Sweetwater Mine, Reynolds County, Missouri.  Size 110 x 85mm. (Lead Sulphide  PbS )  


Galena from Greystones Quarry (OS Ref: SX 362 794)  Lezant, near Launceston. Cornwall. (Lead Sulphide  PbS )


Galena and Pyrite from Keystone, Colorado showing a sharp cluster of numerous cubes of galena with pyrite after pyrrhotite and milky quartz, all on a matrix of sphalerite from the Keystone mine, Crested Butte, Colorado. The psuedomorphs of pyrite replacing pyrrhotite are very sharp on this specimen.  The Keystone Mine near Crested Butte, Colorado was operated by several different companies for silver, lead and zinc until 1977 when AMAX took over the property to explore for molybdenum.  Size 60 x 50mm. (Lead Sulphide, PbS )



Galena and Quartz from Keystone, Colorado.  (Lead Sulphide, PbS)



Galena from Snailbeach Mine, Shropshire.  (Lead Sulphide, PbS )


Heterogenite, a good specimen of the relatively rare Cobalt mineral from the Mashamba West Mine, near Kolwezi, Congo. The Heretogenite is black and bytroidal with some minor Chrysocolla  ((Cu,Al)2H2Si2O5(OH)4.H2O) as an associated mineral. Size 40 by 34 mm. (Cobalt oxide CoO(OH)).


Heterogenite on Chrysocolla Deep blue/green botroidal chrysocolla forms a glassy 1/8” thick layer across the entire top of this 4 ½” x 4” specimen. On top of the chrysocolla (Hydrated copper silicate) are shining glassy botroidal clumps of the rare cobalt mineral heterogenite. The heterogenite forms very nice botroidal “grapes” or “blackberries”. Heterogenite is a rare cobalt hydroxide mineral. The chrysocolla is much deeper green than is normal, and is much clearer than is normally seen. The locale is Kambove, Katanga, Zaire. (Cobalt oxide CoO(OH))


Heulandite from Botallack Mine, Cornwall. (Hydrated Calcium Sodium Aluminium Silicate (Ca,Na)2 - 3Al3(Al, Si)2Si13O36.12H2O) 


Hidalgoite from Hingston Down Quarry. (Lead Aluminium Arseno-sulphate PbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6)   


Jamesonite from Port Quin  (OS ref SW 971 806)  St Endellion  North Cornish coast. (Lead Iron Antimony Sulphide Pb4FeSb6S14). 


Jasper from Greystones Quarry (OS ref SX 362 794)  Lezant, near Launceston. Cornwall. Jasper is a form of Chalcedony, covering varieties of cryptocrystalline quartz.


Kinoite (Hydrated Calcium Copper Silicate Ca2Cu2Si3O10.2H2O )



Langite and Brochantite from Penberthy Croft Mine.  Brochanite is Copper Sulphate Hydroxide,  Cu4(SO4)(OH)6  (Copper Sulphate Hydroxide, Cu4(SO4)(OH)6.2(H2O))



Langite, Bedford United Mine, from the Marquis Lode in this famous mine at Gulworthy, Tavistock, Devon. Iron stained killas matrix with a scattering of tiny turquoise coloured crystals of langite. Size 60 x 40 x 30mm

9376 Lavendulan Mineral Specimen, an uncommon copper arsenate mineral, known for its characteristic intense electric blue colour. This sample comes from Chile.  NaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl.5H2O.



LIBETHENITE TURQUOISE & APATITE GUNHEATH CORNWALL Spread of sparkling micro-crystals of libethenite on granite with turquoise var. rashleighite and small blue apatite crystals - from Gunheath CCP, St. Austell, Cornwall. Collected nearly 20 years ago.  Measures 105mm x 60mm x 40mm. Apatite crystals typically 1mm.  Libethenite is similar to olivenite. It has an emerald green colour and bright lustre. (Copper Phosphate Hydroxide, Cu2PO4(OH)) 


Linarite and Galena from Greystones Quarry (OS ref: SX 362 794)  Lezant, near Launceston. Cornwall. (Lead Copper Sulphate Hydroxide PbCuSO4(OH)2 ) .

9369 Linarite with Fluorite Mineral Specimen combined copper lead sulphate hydroxide with formula PbCuSO4(OH)2. Linarite occurs as monoclinic prismatic to tabular crystals and irregular masses. It is easily confused with azurite, but does not react with dilute hydrochloric acid as azurite does. Linarite was first identified in 1822. It is named after the Linares Plateau, Spain.


Lindgrenite, having an olive-green crust of copper-molybdenum ore scattered on highly altered granitic matrix, from the Childs-Aldwinkle Mine, Copper Creek district, Pinal County, Arizona. It was named after Waldemar Lindgren who established that most metallic ore deposits are emplaced by hot solutions from below, and first found in that greatest of holes in the ground, Chuquicamata Copper Mine, Chile. Miniature size specimen about 1½” tall. (Copper molybdate Cu3(MoO4)2 (OH)2 )  


Liroconite from the Ting Tang Mine near St. Day Cornwall. (Hydrated Copper Aluminium Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4.4H2O ). 


Listwanite This rusty red quartz gold bearing material came from a river in Western Washington State, where Jade can also be found. It is closely related to chrysophrase.


Mimetite , (Lead Chloroarsenate Pb5(AsO4)3Cl ) see also campylite



Mixite, from Penberthy Croft, St. Hilary, Cornwall. Mixite, one of a small number of Bismuth minerals. It is a rare mineral forming in the weathering zones of copper deposits that contained other bismuth sulphides. Mixite is a particularly attractive collectors specimen. It forms spherules, wonderful radial clusters, made up of fine needle-like crystals. The colour is almost always a deep green made even more attractive by a silky lustre.  (Hydrated Copper Bismuth Arsenate Hydroxide BiCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6.3H2O ). 


Mottramite   Penberthy Croft, St. Hilary, Cornwall.  Mottramite can form sparkling crusts that have a nice lustre and striking green colour. (various shades of green) Crystal Habits are typically tiny drusy crusts, radiating and stalactitic masses. (Cuprodescloizite,  Lead Copper Vanadinate Hydroxide PbCu(VO4)(OH) ).


Malachite & Chrysocolla -  This nice example of Malachite & Chrysocolla is from the Kolwezi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo. This piece displays concentric banding of green Malachite & Chysocolla of turquoise/blue hue with an coating of very dark green  druzy Malachite.  Opaque with a vitreous lustre. (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 )


Malachite & Chrysocolla -  This nice example of Malachite & Chrysocolla is from the Kolwezi, Democratic Republic Of The Congo. This piece displays concentric banding of green Malachite & Chysocolla of turquoise/blue hue with an coating of very dark green  druzy Malachite.  Opaque with a vitreous lustre.  Measures 65 x 45 x 15mm - Weight is 60 grams.  (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 )



Malachite / Turquoise / Quartz  from a private mine in Northern Santa Cruz Co., AZ. a splendid specimen that could be cut to cabochons. Malachite, turquoise, quartz, red hematite, minor gold in box works.  Size 80 x 60 x 30mm.  (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 )


Malachite as a sharp psuedomorph of malachite replacing azurite from Bisbee, Cochise County, Arizona. Size 45 x 33 mm.  (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 ) 


Malachite in botryoidal form with a dark green hue and a dark green drusy coating. Shows concentric banding pattern on edge. Democratic Republic of Congo.  Size 92 x 45 x 30mm, weight 183 g. (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 ).  



Botryoidal Malachite that can easily be seen with a loupe.(Photo's do not do this specimen justice). Overall Size: 4.5cm x 2.2cm x 3.0cm From: Tolvaddon Mine, Marazion, Cornwall.  (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 ) 


Malachite, dioptase and gold sulphide in crystalline quartz from the Gold Bar Mine in O'Brien's Gulch, Amazon Gorge.  (Hydrated copper carbonate Cu2(CO3)(OH)2 ). 


Marcasite from Wheal Mary Ann.  It is an Arabic or Moorish name for pyrites and similar material of uncertain origin. (Iron Disulphide, FeS2 ).


Meta-zeunerite (Hydrated Copper Uranyl Arsenate Cu(UO2)2(AsO4)2.8H2O )



Millerite, normally found as nearly invisible hairs in some geodes, this is a specimen of nearly solid mineral! It is made of densely packed radiating sharp metallic needles, with kind of a greenish-brassy colour. It came from the Thompson Open Pit, Thompson, Manitoba. Thumbnail specimen, about 0.8 inch across. (Nickel sulphide  NiS )

9342 Mohawkite, polished - a mixture of copper, algodonite, and domeykite, the latter two being rare copper minerals, chemical formula from: Cu3As up to Cu6As. Named after the Mohawk Mine, Houghton, Keweenaw, Michigan.


Mottramite (Lead Copper Vanadinate Hydroxide PbCu(VO4)(OH))



Murdochite from Gila Coounty, Arizona via the Alice Noble collection.  Mentioned as being rare at this locality in the mineralogy of Arizona. Black frosting of minute micro crystals on 1-2 mm blue-green Smithsonite crystals on a 25 x 23mm area on top of rock. Most of specimen is microcrystalline Hemimorphite & Smithsonite. 62 x 50 x 46mm. (Complex copper lead oxide Cu6PbO7.52(Cl,Br) )   


Olivenite from the Ting Tang Mine near St. Day Cornwall.  (Copper Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2AsO4(OH) ).   


Olivenite from Wheal Gorland SW 730 427 St Day, Gwennap. Cornwall. (Copper Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2AsO4(OH) ).  


Olivenite from Wheal Gorland SW 730 427 St Day, Gwennap. Cornwall. (Copper Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2AsO4(OH) ).   



Olivenite, Uncommon Secondary Copper; Nevada Olive-green (what a surprise!) acicular crystals in vug of limonitic matrix. Uncommon location: Simon Mine, in Mineral County. Copper Arsenate Hydroxide, Thumbnail specimen, about 27mm tall. (Copper Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2AsO4(OH) ).    



Papagoite  (Calcium Copper Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide CaCuAlSi2O6(OH)3  )   



Peacock ore. This is a copper-iron-sulphur ore of the chalcopyrite group named after its shimmering colours. (Bornite,  (Cu5FeS4)).  



Peacock ore, a copper-iron sulphide aptly named after its shimmering colours.  Origin Colorado.  (Bornite,  (Cu5FeS4)) 


Pharmacosiderite from the Ting Tang Mine near St. Day Cornwall. (Hydrated Potassium Iron Arsenate Hydroxide. KFe4(AsO4)(OH)4.7H2O)



Pharmacosiderite from Wheal Gorland.  (Hydrated Potassium Iron Arsenate Hydroxide  KFe4(AsO4)(OH)4.7H2O).


Plancheite (Hydrated Copper Silicate Hydroxide  Cu8Si8O22(OH)4.H2O )



Polybasite-Pearcite from Mexico Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico is famous for its wealth of silver minerals. This is a nice specimen of silver sulphosalt, either polybasite or pearceite.  They appear the same but can be identified by analysis. Size is 17x16x16mm. (Silver Copper Antimony Sulphide (Ag,Cu)16Sb2S11 ).  


Polybasite-Pearcite from Mexico Fresnillo, Zacatecas, Mexico is famous for its wealth of silver minerals. THis is a nice specimen of silfer sulfosalt. One ca't tell without special analysis whether this is polybasite or pearceite. Size is 17 x 16 x 16 mm.  (Silver Copper Antimony Sulphide (Ag,Cu)16Sb2S11 ) 


PSEUDOBOLEITE: Santa Catalina Mine, Sierra Gorda, Chile  Pseudoboleite occurs here as blue masses of micro-crystals intermixed with a limonitic matrix. Other minerals such as hemimorphite are often present. An excellent specimen for microscope viewing, this is XRD-confirmed material. This uncommon mineral measures 60x30mm.  Pseudoboleite (Hydrated Lead Copper Chloride Hydroxide Pb5Cu4Cl10(OH)8.2H2O  )


Pyrite as large crystals together with chalcocite (copper sulphide) from Zacatecas, Mexico.  (Iron sulphide  FeS2 )


Pyrite and Sphalarite on Quartz Group.  (Iron sulphide  FeS2 )


Pyrite cluster from Gilman, Colorado. (Iron sulphide  FeS2 ) 


Pyromorphite It has fantastic small bright pale green crystals covering the one end of its matrix and inside the two fissures it has more crystals. It measures 5.5 cm x 3.5 cm and originated from Santa Eufemia, Spain. (Lead Chlorophosphate, Pb5Cl(PO4)3 ).  



Pyromorphite from Trevinnick Mine  (Green Lead Ore, Lead Chlorophosphate, Pb5Cl(PO4)3 )  


Pyromorphite. .  Location: Penberthy Croft, St.Hilary, Cornwall. (Green Lead Ore, Lead Chlorophosphate, Pb5Cl(PO4)3 )  


Quetzalcoatlite (Zinc Copper Tellurite Hydroxide Zn8Cu4(TeO3)3(OH)18  )



 Rashleighite, a form of green Turquoise with many vughs of green Turquoise in a grey quartz matrix. It is from a classic Cornish locality. Size 75 x 50 x 25mm.

9375 Renierite (Germanium) Specimen, a rare copper-zinc-germanium bearing sulphide mineral. It occurs at the Kipushi Mine, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Renierite was named after Armand Renier, a Belgian geologist and Director of the Belgian Geological Survey. (Cu,Zn)11(Ge,As)2Fe4S16.


Rhodonite and Pyrolusite  Specimen of light pink Rhodonite  with black Pyrolusite (Manganese Dioxide) from an old abandoned Cornish Manganese mine. Size approx 125 x 75 x 35mm.  (Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Silicate (Mn,Fe,Mg,Ca)5(SiO3)5 )


Beautiful Rose Quartz Sphere, 20mm diameter.



Rosasite as pale blue spherules scattered over nicely contrasting limonite matrix. From the Omega Mine, Helvetia district, Pima County. Arizona.  Thumbnail specimen about 1.2 inches across. (Copper zinc carbonate hydroxide (Cu, Zn)2CO3(OH)2 )  .



Schorl  Complex AluminumBoroSilicate of the tourmaline group from Hingston Down Quarry. (Sodium Iron Aluminum Boro-silicate Hydroxide NaFe3(Al,Fe)6Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)4 ). 


Scorodite .   from the Ting Tang Mine near St. Day Cornwall. (Hydrated Iron Arsenate, FeAsO4.2H2O ) 


Scorodite & Olivenite, from the Ting Tang Mine near St. Day Cornwall. ( Copper Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2AsO4(OH)).  


Scorodite & Pharmocosiderite  from the Ting Tang Mine near St. Day Cornwall. ( Copper Arsenate Hydroxide Cu2AsO4(OH)).  



Selenite, colourless form of gypsum, from Colorado in the form of a cluster of flattened crystals. The main crystal is a double terminated 3 ½” crystal. Radiating from it are 1/8” to 5/8” selenites. The overall dimensions are 3½” x 2”. There is a second specimen that has crystals. (Hydrated Calcium Sulphate CaSO4.2(H2O) ).    


Shattuckite  from New Cornelia Mine, Ajo, Arizona with moderately rich dark blue platy cleavages with minor Ajoite in Hematite. Micromount pockets to 7 mm sparsely scattered throughout rock.  From the Harry Metz collection, a geologist who worked nearby for 50 years.  Size 60 x 37 x 30mm.  (Copper Silicate Hydroxide Cu5(SiO3)4(OH)2 ).


Shattuckite & Chrysocolla, cabinet specimen from Congo. A large specimen containing the minerals shattuckite, chrysoccola and possibly another unidentified one. The specimen includes a piece of what appears to be basaltic rock, covered with a crust of 2-4mm of Chrysocolla. Most of the surface of the Chrysocolla is covered with a sparkly coating of crystalline shattuckite, and on that, there are a couple of patches of the mystery mineral.  (Copper Silicate Hydroxide Cu5(SiO3)4(OH)2 ).


Siderite from Wheal Drea Mine. (Iron Carbonate,  FeCO3).


Siderite from Wheal Drea Mine. SW 366 323   St Just. Cornwall   (Iron Carbonate,  FeCO3)


Smithsonite. This mineral was called calamine when it was used  for direct cementation with copper to make brass.  It was renamed in honour of the British chemist who founded the Smithsonian Institution.  This is classic lime green smithsonite is from the 79 Mine, Hayden, Arizona.. The smithsonite forms the classic “melted wax” botryoidal layers of crystals, and covers all faces of the specimen. Size 32 x 36mm. (Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3 ) 


Smithsonite as yellow crystals deposited on Dolomite.  The yellow colour is due to the inclusion of greenockite in the smithsonite. Sample from Philadelphia Mine, Rush, Arkansas.  Smithsonite is zinc carbonate, ZnCO3. named for James Smithson, the founder of the Smithsonian Institution.  Size 25 x 20 x 19mm. (Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3 ).  


Smithsonite with lemon-yellow 'Turkey Fat' colour.  (Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3 ). 


Smithsonite, blue. This specimen features botroidal baby blue smithsonite in vugs on all sides of the massive smithsonite matrix. The blue lustre is the classic “melted wax”, and is attractive. Good banding can be seen as well.  The locale was Choix, Sinaloa, Mexico.  Size 110 x 60mm. (Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3 ).  


Smithsonite from Level 8, San Antonio Mine, Santa Eulalia, Chihuaha, Mexico. (Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3 ).  



Smithsonite in light green bytroidal form from the San Antonio Mine, Santa Eulalia, Mexico. The specimen is similar in many respects to the beautiful smithsonites from the Kelly Mine in New Mexico. Smithsonite is Zinc Carbonate, Calamine, formula ZnCO3.  Size 30 x 25mm.


Smithsonite from San Antonio, Mexico, a sharp specimen of green smithsonite perched on a matrix of goethite (hydrated iron oxide) from 8th level of the San Antonio mine, Santa Eulalia, Chihuahua, Mexico. The spheres of smithsonite stand out nicely on the matrix. Size 45 x 20mm.  (Zinc carbonate, ZnCO3 ) 


Smokey Quartz from East Wheel Buckets, Cornwall.

9367 Sonora Sunrise (sometimes Senora Sunrise). It is made up of Chrysocolla, which is a beautiful blue, and Cuprite, which has some great red variations and is found in Mexico. This piece measures approx. 78 x 43 x 18mm.


Spalerite (Sphalerite), Snailbeach Mine, Shropshire.  (Zinc Iron Sulphide (Zn,Fe)S).


Spangolite from Blanchard Mine spangolite crystals scattered about on matrix from the Blanchard Mine in Bingham, New Mexico. Collected by Ray DeMark a few years back. Size is 30 by 24 by 15 mm. (Copper Aluminium Sulphate Chloride Hydroxide Cu6Al(SO4)Cl(OH)12.3H2O )   



Spangolite from Blanchard Mine   spangolite crystals scattered about on matrix from the Blanchard MIne in Bingham, New Mexico. Collected by Ray DeMark a few years back. Size is 30 by 24 by 15 mm.  (Copper Aluminium Sulphate Chloride Hydroxide Cu6Al(SO4)Cl(OH)12.3H2O )  


Stibnite from Baia Spric, Romania,  Small group of elongated metallic crystals, some terminations 20 x20 x10mm.  (Antimony Sulphide Sb2S3).


Stromeyerite from Uzbekistan showing copper-silver veins where silver replaces copper in Bornite (Copper Iron Sulphide Cu5FeS4).  (Silver-copper-sulphide, AgCuS).   


Teallite, Lustrous metallic foliated crystalline structure which is very typical of the rare species. From Carguaicollo, Potosi Department, Bolivia.   (Tin-Lead Sulphide PbSnS2 ).


Tennantite (Copper Arsenic Sulphide  Cu12As4S13 )



Tetrahedrite. This is a very special specimen of massive Tetrahedrite as its matrix and in its perfect termination and crystallization process. There are a few clusters of beautiful Quartz Crystals, also all very nice. An extra treat comes with this specimen and that is, is completely dusted with Chalcopyrite Powder. It just glistens. Just a fine coating of pyrite. This piece weighs a nice 2.1 Pounds and measure 5½"x 4½”. (Copper Antimony Sulphide Cu12Sb4S13 ) .


Torbernite a copper-uranium ore   These crystals come from Namibia having clusters of bright and dark green torbernite crystals are on all faces of this specimen. The individual crystals are 1 to 3mm long. and the overall dimensions are . This is and is mildly radioactive.  Size 47 x 35mm (1 7/8” x 1 3/8”).  (Hydrated Copper Uranyl Phosphate  Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.10H2O).


Tourmaline in radial form from Botallack Mine, Cornwall.  Check pic for type against:  None seem to contain copper. 


Turquoise azurite, malachite and silver from the 85' level of the No 2 shaft of the Iona silver, copper and gold mine in the Hieroglyphic Mountains of Western Arizona.  This was originally a copper and gold occurrence which was later altered by an igneous intrusion, (red picacho) and broken up by geological activity, then re-cemented in hydrothermal solution  ("brecciated") bearing copious quantities of calcium, manganese, boron, and tungsten silicates along with large amounts of silver.  When cut, this shows a wild "mosaic" pattern of bright blue spider webbed turquoise, deep intense blue azurite, bright green malachite and flashy native silver in a spectacular hard brown quartz matrix.  The exterior is rather oxidized, but what is found inside most is large enough for two 50mm spheres along with hundreds of cabs, this specimen is 125 x 112 x 77mm (5" x 4 1/2" x 2 1/2") and weighs   1550g,  (3.5lb). (Hydrated Copper Aluminium Phosphate  CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8.5(H2O),). 


Turquoise, dioptase and cuprite from Constellation, Arizona.  It is from the 225 foot level of the No 3 shaft.  (Hydrated Copper Aluminium Phosphate  CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8.5(H2O),).


Turquoise from Gunheath Clay Pit, Bugle, in Cornwall.  This is the green variety known as Rashleighite and is rich solid Turquoise in a milky quartz matrix.  Size 75 x 50 x 50mm (3 x 2 x 2 inches). (Hydrated Copper Aluminium Phosphate  CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8.5(H2O),). 


Vanadinate on Hollandite with well shaped Vanadinite crystals which have formed onto the botryoidal crystals of Hollandite. It originated in Taus, Morocco.  Size 70 x 60mm, weight 290g.  (Lead Chlorovanadate Pb5(VO4)3Cl).

9368 Vanadinite, another specimen as usually found in the form of red hexagonal crystals. It is formed by the oxidation of lead ore deposits such as galena. First discovered in 1801 in Mexico, vanadinite deposits have since been unearthed in South America, Europe, Africa, and other parts of North America. From Morocco this lovely little example measures approx. 30 x 20 x 18mm, with crystals up to 11mm across.


Vandenbrandeite - Rare - Musonoi, Katanga, Zaire   approximate size of the specimen is: 2.7cm, Width=2cm, Thickness=1cm.  Well outbid.  Vandenbrandeite    Cu(UO2)(OH)4.


Violarite + Millerite (Nickel Sulphide) + Pentlandite.(Iron Nickel Sulphide (Fe,Ni)9S8).Colorado   The sample is composed of Violarite, Millerite, Pentlandite, and possibly other unidentified minerals. It is from the Copper King Mine, Gold Hill District, Boulder County, Colorado.  Size 65 x 50 x 25mm.  (Iron-Nickel Sulphide FeNi2S4)


Wollastonite  from Greystones Quarry Lezant, near Launceston. Cornwall. (Calcium Silicate, CaSiO3).  


Wulfenite and mimetite -  Mexico This item has gemmy bright orange “windowpane” wulfenite crystals to 12mm length along with botryoidal orange/yellow mimetites on goethite matrix. The wulfenites are nicely terminated crystals. The locale is San Carlos, Chihuahua, Mexico.  Wulfenite is on Mimetite, a lead chloroarsenate Pb5[Cl|(AsO4)  Size 25 x 25mm.  (Lead-molybdenum oxide (PbMoO4) ). 


Wulfenite as bright yellow wulfenite crystals on a white barite matrix from the Toussit Mine, Oujeda, Morocco. Wulfenites are rare from this locale. There are wulfenites on all sides of the specimen, ranging in size from 1 to 6mm. Overall dimensions are 30 x 22mm (1 ¼” x 7/8”). (lead-molybdenum oxide (PbMoO4)).  



Zeunerite - Grandview Mine, Coconino Co.,AZ  a thumbnail size specimen from the Grandview Mine, Coconino County, Arizona. The approximate size of the specimen is: Height=1.9cm, Width=1.3cm, Thickness=.4cm.   Zeunerite (Hydrated Copper Uranyl Arsenate Cu(UO2)2(AsO4)2 .10-16H2O).


Zincite, a crystalline zinc oxide. In nature, Zincite crystallises very rarely, it has been found grown accidentally in the condensing vents of old zinc smelting plants.  This sample came from Poland some years ago. Zincite varies in colour with impurities and may be grey, green, orange or red.  (ZnO)